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Klim Afanasyev
Klim Afanasyev

Another Period Image

Another Period is as scintillating as it is irreverent in its blistering satire of both period dramas and reality shows. The show lives up to its likeness to a marriage of Downton Abbey and Keeping Up with the Kardashians, taking the uneven relationships between the elite and their servants to a new level of reliance and debauchery that would be disturbing if it wasn't so funny. The loathsome, self-indulgent Bellacourts -- and social-climbing dimwits Beatrice and Lillian in particular -- would be a distasteful bunch in real life (c'mon, they give their servants names such as "Chair" and "Mr. Peepers," for heaven's sake), but fortunately for viewers, they're fictional characters just begging to be laughed at.

Another Period image

No one knows exactly what Jesus looked like, and there are no known images of him from his lifetime. Art history professor Anna Swartwood House writes in The Conversation about the complicated history of the images of Christ and how historically they have served many purposes.

The earliest images of Jesus Christ emerged in the first through third centuries A.D., amidst concerns about idolatry. They were less about capturing the actual appearance of Christ than about clarifying his role as a ruler or as a savior.

This belief originated in the seventh century A.D., based on a legend that Christ healed King Abgar of Edessa in modern-day Urfa, Turkey, through a miraculous image of his face, now known as the Mandylion.

Scholar Edward J. Blum and Paul Harvey argue that in the centuries after European colonization of the Americas, the image of a white Christ associated him with the logic of empire and could be used to justify the oppression of Native and African Americans.

Pictures of Jesus historically have served many purposes, from symbolically presenting his power to depicting his actual likeness. But representation matters, and viewers need to understand the complicated history of the images of Christ they consume.

Banner image photo credit: Painting depicting transfiguration of Jesus, a story in the New Testament when Jesus becomes radiant upon a mountain. Artist Raphael /Collections Hallwyl Museum, CC BY-SA

Another concept to be discussed is the refractory period. By definition, the refractory period is a period of time during which a cell is incapable of repeating an action potential. In terms of action potentials, it refers to the amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to be ready to respond to a second stimulus once it returns to a resting state. There are two types of refractory periods; the absolute refractory period, which corresponds to depolarization and repolarization, and the relative refractory period, which corresponds to hyperpolarization. Moreover, the absolute refractory period is the interval of time during which a second action potential cannot be initiated, no matter how large a stimulus is repeatedly applied. The relative refractory period is the interval of time during which a second action potential can be initiated, but initiation will require a greater stimulus than before. Refractory periods are caused by the inactivation gate of the Na+ channel. Once inactivated, the Na+ channel cannot respond to another stimulus until the gates are reset.

The image above shows how an action potential might have started near the cell soma and as it propagates down the axon towards the opposite end, the membrane potential behind the moving action potential has repolarized and returned to resting membrane potential. The axon ahead of the current depolarization has not yet depolarized and it is also at resting membrane potential. Where the action potential is occurring we find the membrane potential depolarized and the outside of the membrane at that spot is negatively charged relative to the inside of the membrane at that spot. As sodium rushes in, it will depolarize the next adjacent spot on the axon in the direction that the action potential is propagating. The reason that the action potential does not depolarize the section of axon membrane behind (or in the direction that the action potential just came from) is because that section of membrane is most likely in refractory periods and does not depolarize.

The image above is a ".gif" animation and will play only if you see the picture on the internet. As you watch this animation, you will see how an action potential travels as a "depolarization" wave.

The image above is another ".gif" animation (must be viewed on the computer and not in print form). This animation shows how an action potential traveling down the axon is similar to stepping on one end of a water balloon. In reality, a pressure wave in the water balloon would get smaller as it traveled down the length, but a traveling action potential (or depolarization wave) is recreated at every spot on the axon that has voltage gated sodium channels to open at threshold. In this way the original strength of the depolarization wave is continually recreated.

The image above shows myelin on a peripheral nerve axon. The myelin is made up of individual Schwann cells. The myelin covers the axon in a way that "insulates" the axon from depolarization waves. In this way, a depolarization even will occur only at the "Nodes of Ranvier" (or areas of bare axon between individual myelin segments). When a nerve axon is organized in this way with myelin, action potential propagation can travel much faster (nearly 10 times faster than unmyelinated axons).

The image above is another ".gif" animation. It shows how a myelinated axon might compare to a water balloon with segmented cuffs on it. A pressure wave generated at one segment would travel down the length of the balloon and be recreated at each "node". Notice how the positively charged sodium entering in at the first node causes positive charges to travel down the axon where they can attempt to depolarize each node. The strength of the depolarization wave decreases with distance from the original first depolarization area (just like the pressure wave decreases with distance from the first segment pressed on the water balloon).

A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction. Any type of illustration or image other than a table is referred to as a figure.

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The depiction of Jesus in pictorial form dates back to early Christian art and architecture, as aniconism in Christianity was rejected within the ante-Nicene period.[1][2][3][4] It took several centuries to reach a conventional standardized form for his physical appearance, which has subsequently remained largely stable since that time. Most images of Jesus have in common a number of traits which are now almost universally associated with Jesus, although variants are seen.

The conventional image of a fully bearded Jesus with long hair emerged around AD 300, but did not become established until the 6th century in Eastern Christianity, and much later in the West. It has always had the advantage of being easily recognizable, and distinguishing Jesus from other figures shown around him, which the use of a cruciform halo also achieves. Earlier images were much more varied.

Images of Jesus tend to show ethnic characteristics similar to those of the culture in which the image has been created. Beliefs that certain images are historically authentic, or have acquired an authoritative status from Church tradition, remain powerful among some of the faithful, in Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, and Roman Catholicism. The Shroud of Turin is now the best-known example, though the Image of Edessa and the Veil of Veronica were better known in medieval times.[not verified in body]

The representation of Jesus was controversial in the early period; the regional Synod of Elvira in Spain in 306 states in its 36th canon that no images should be in churches.[5] Later, in the Eastern church, Byzantine iconoclasm banned and destroyed images of Christ for a period, before they returned in full strength. In the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, the followers of John Calvin in particular saw images of Christ as idolatrous and enforced their removal.[6] Due to their understanding of the second of the Ten Commandments, most Evangelical Protestants still avoid displaying representations of Jesus in their places of worship.[7][8]

Initially Jesus was represented indirectly by pictogram symbols such as the ichthys (fish), the peacock, or an anchor (the Labarum or Chi-Rho was a later development). The staurogram seems to have been a very early representation of the crucified Jesus within the sacred texts. Later personified symbols were used, including Jonah, whose three days in the belly of the whale pre-figured the interval between Christ's death and resurrection; Daniel in the lion's den; or Orpheus charming the animals.[17] The image of "The Good Shepherd", a beardless youth in pastoral scenes collecting sheep, was the most common of these images, and was probably not understood as a portrait of the historical Jesus at this period.[18] It continues the classical Kriophoros ("ram-bearer" figure), and in some cases may also represent the Shepherd of Hermas, a popular Christian literary work of the 2nd century.[19]

Another depiction, seen from the late 3rd century or early 4th century onwards, showed Jesus with a beard, and within a few decades can be very close to the conventional type that later emerged.[36] This depiction has been said to draw variously on Imperial imagery, the type of the classical philosopher,[37] and that of Zeus, leader of the Greek gods, or Jupiter, his Roman equivalent,[38] and the protector of Rome. According to art historian Paul Zanker, the bearded type has long hair from the start, and a relatively long beard (contrasting with the short "classical" beard and hair always given to St Peter, and most other apostles);[39] this depiction is specifically associated with "Charismatic" philosophers like Euphrates the Stoic, Dio of Prusa and Apollonius of Tyana, some of whom were claimed to perform miracles.[40] 041b061a72


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